Welcome back to another article where we compare two different motor oils. In this one, we will be looking at 10W30 vs 10W40.
These two motor oils are very similar to each other but shouldn’t be used interchangeably.
We will go through the following sections while considering 10W30 vs 10W40.
- What Does Motor Oil Do?
- Comparing 10W30 vs 10W40 Oil
- Motor Oil Multigrades
- 10W30 vs 10W40 – Which Is Better?
- What You Should Do?
- Changing The Oil Filter
- Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Feel free to click on the relevant link above to jump to whichever section you want.
Let’s get started.
What Does Engine Oil Do
If you have a car, you will at least be aware of the need to keep the engine topped up with motor oil. It’s one of the fundamental parts of learning to drive and basic maintenance.
However, you might not be quite so sure about what this liquid does.
Sure, there’s the oil cap on the top of your engine, but why is it important to keep the level topped up? Why does it need to change so often? Why can it be quite expensive? And – most importantly – what does it actually do?
The main function of motor oil is to keep the system lubricated.
Most oils used in machinery and manufacturing processes are used for this kind of thing. The oils used in an engine are no exception.
The oil is designed to form a layer between separate metal surfaces. This stops them from scraping against each other or otherwise getting in each other’s way. If this was to happen, it would cause friction.
Engine oil functions as a lubricant between metal surfaces.
Friction can (usually) be thought of as the Most Wanted Criminal in terms of the engineering industry.
(Note: this isn’t always the case. For example, if tires didn’t create any friction, they would be effectively useless).
An engine should be as efficient as possible. To most of us, we can just imagine it as running smoothly. The smoother, the better.
In technical terms, this comes down to the amount of energy put into the engine compared to the amount of energy it produces, expressed as a percentage.
(ENERGY OUT ÷ ENERGY IN) × 100%
Nothing is 100% efficient, but the higher the efficiency, the better.
1. Why Does Motor Oil Need To Be Kept Topped Up
Motor oil needs to be kept topped up so that there is always enough in the system.
In internal combustion vehicles (gasoline, diesel, etc.), cars are fitted with oil systems. These include a sump, an oil pump, an oil filter, and plenty of passageways cut through the engine block. These passageways direct the oil flow through the engine block and keep everything lubricated.
If the level of motor oil was to get too low, there would no longer be enough oil to keep the engine lubricated.
It’s also worth pointing out that, in the same vein, too much motor oil can lead to issues of its own.
You should always aim to keep the oil level between the maximum and minimum marks on your dipstick.
It doesn’t have to be topped up to the “maximum”. As long as it’s between the two levels, you’re all good.
Make sure you check the oil level on flat ground, otherwise, the sump will not be level. This will lead to an inaccurate reading when you put the dipstick in.
2. Why Does Motor Oil Need Changing
Unfortunately, as the old saying goes, “nothing lasts forever”.
With use and general wear and age, motor oils degrade. Multigrade oils (such as the ones we are considering in this article, 10W30 and 10W40) usually degrade slightly faster than monograde oils (such as SAE 20).
This is because multigrade oils have additives in them, which can get chopped up by the force of the engine.
3. Why Is Motor Oil Expensive
Some oils are more expensive than others. Usually, as the price increases, so too does the quality of the oil.
In more expensive grades, you should expect to find a whole host of extra additives that will serve your engine in many more ways than just lubricating it. These can include cleaning agents, anti-rust agents, long-lasting viscosity modifiers, and many more.
It’s always worth checking what’s in the oil you’re buying. If the oil seems too cheap to be true, it probably is. However, likewise, it’s not always necessary to spend a fortune.
You’ll find that, in the long run, this will often be better for you financially than just throwing any old cheap oil in your engine.
10w30 vs 10w40
Before we get into the “why”, we will briefly explain the difference between the two oils.
10W40 is “thicker” than 10W30 when the car is at running temperature. Some people might also refer to it as “heavier”. Neither of these terms is technically accurate, but they do help to visualize it.
In reality, we would say that 10W40 is more viscous than 10W30. By contrast, when thinking about 10W30 vs 10W40, we would say it is less viscous.
Viscosity is a term expressing something very similar to the “thickness” or “heaviness” of liquid, but with a little more scientific depth.
We will look into viscosity in the next section.
Another first thing to note when we compare 10W30 vs 10W40 is that very few cars will be designed to run on both oils. You should never, ever, ever go against what the owner’s manual says to put in the car, unless in exceptional circumstances where you are sure you know what you’re doing.
Manufacturers design engines to work as efficiently as possible with certain motor oil, or sometimes a range of motor oils. Going outside of this area can only lead to bad things.
Lots of people think of viscosity as either the heaviness or the thickness of a liquid. Although it’s broadly expressing the same thing, there is slightly more to viscosity than this.
This video from 2 Minute Classroom is a great introduction to viscosity.
As well as looking at the different flow behaviors exhibited by different fluids, this video also briefly touches on how viscosity changes (reduces) with temperature. For example, as honey warms up it becomes “runnier”.
This is particularly relevant to a car’s engine, so keep it in mind.
Click here to jump to physics.info for a full-on, in-depth explanation of what is going on.
Quoting from the above-mentioned site, we see that…
viscosity is the quantity that describes a fluid’s resistance to flow…
In terms of physics, we would say that viscosity expresses the ratio between the shear stress and the velocity gradient.
It might help to think of it in terms of internal friction. The more internal friction a fluid has, the more it tries to stop itself from flowing. This would mean it is a more viscous fluid.
If that’s all far too much information at one time, don’t worry – just think of it in terms of thickness. The “thicker” a liquid is, the more viscous it is.
Comparing honey vs water is a traditional comparison to explain this concept. If you had a glass of honey and a glass of water and you tilted them at the same rate, at the same time, you instinctively know that the water is going to flow much more quickly than the honey.
This is because honey is more viscous than water. Or “thicker”.
For a more in-depth video about viscosity and, specifically, how it changes with temperature, check out this one from Tutorials Point (India) Ltd.
Oil Numbers Meaning
Now that we have defined viscosity, we come to think about how that impacts our subject for this article.
Both 10W30 and 10W40 are multigrade oils. This means that they have more than one grade. In this case (and almost every other), there are two grades. For example, in 10W30, we find an oil that behaves like SAE 10 in cold temperatures and like SAE 30 in normal operating temperatures.
The “grade” refers to the level of viscosity.
It’s important to know, here, that the grade is not a direct measurement of viscosity. They are purely relative. Grades are assigned by the SAE designated through four tests, which we will explain a little more about shortly.
Take a look at this graph. Although it’s not a direct representation of how liquids behave, it’s useful for illustrative purposes.
Remember how we showed that viscosity in liquids decreases with temperature? You can see this on the graph.
The green and pink lines represent standard monograde oils, those being SAE 10 and SAE 20, respectively. You can see how these decrease in viscosity with temperature.
Using a wide variety of additives called viscosity modifiers (which are polymeric molecules), engineers can modify the characteristics of liquids such as motor oils. From that, we get a “multigrade” oil, which behaves like one grade at 0 degrees C, and like another at 100 degrees C.
With the graph, as an illustration, you can see that 10W20 behaves like SAE 10 at 0 degrees Celcius and like SAE 20 at 100 degrees C.
What Do The Oil Numbers Mean
On a cold morning, when starting your car, the oil needs to get around the engine as quickly as possible. The thicker the oil is (the more viscous it is), the more power the oil pump needs to put out to shift it.
This means there is a greater load on your battery, which is something we don’t want.
Therefore, the oil should be as “thin” (have a lower viscosity) as possible when the car is starting up.
It also follows that, once the car is running and up to temperature, the oil should be relatively “thick” (viscous). This is because the moving metal parts inside the engine need as much protection as possible. The motor oil is what provides this.
More viscous oils work better once the engine is up to temperature, but are less efficient when the engine is warming up. For less viscous oils, the opposite applies.
This is why we have multigrade oils.
They can be as “thin” as possible when the engine is starting and warming up, before becoming as vicious as possible once it’s up to temperature.
Oil Weights Explained
As we’ve just seen, there are two different parts to a multigrade oil’s definition.
The first grade refers to the temperature at 0 degrees C, representing “winter” (hint, hint, nudge, nudge) conditions. The second number is the grade at operating temperatures of 100 degrees.
The “W” stands for “winter”.
It just means that this is the oil grade when it’s cold.
Engineers aren’t the most inventive lot when it comes to names and definitions, sometimes.
You’ll usually see oils written as 10W-30 or 10W-40, the difference being the dash in the middle. This clearly distinguishes the two grades and shows that the first is associated with “winter”.
Oil SAE Meaning
The Society of Automotive Engineers is a professional body. It sets standards for many automotive projects and appliances, including motor oils.
The grade that you see on an oil is defined by the SAE.
A total of four tests are conducted on an oil. Two of these are done at 0 degrees C and the other two are at engine operating temperatures.
The first two tests give the oil its winter grade. In the example of 10W30, this would be “10W”. The second two tests give the oil its operating temperature grade, which would be “30” in the same example.
Read more about the SAE grades on Wikipedia here.
Difference Between 10W30 And 10W40
Neither oil is better or worse.
They are different from each other, certainly, and will react differently as well, but it would be a complete injustice to call one better than the other.
As we have just seen, both 10W30 and 10W40 have winter SAE oil grades of 10W. SAE grades range from 0W to 25W, so you might think of 10W as being the sort of average “winter” viscosity across the automotive industry.
Since both oils are the same here, it won’t make any difference at this point…
Once the engine gets up to temperature, the oils behave slightly differently.
You can see that 10W40 is more viscous than 10W30, at these temperatures. The basic fact that “40” is greater than “30” tells you that.
If you were to put 10W40 in an engine designed for 10W30, the “thicker” oil would lead to friction in the engine and an increased load on the oil pump. The car would have to do more work to get the oil around the engine block.
In the same manner, putting 10W30 in an engine that wants 10W40 could lead to insufficient lubrication. The oil might be “too thin”.
The lesson here is to always listen to – and obey – your owner’s manual.
The manufacturers know what they’re talking about, contrary to what a shouty blog on the corner of the internet might be telling you.
There might be the occasional exception to this, but very rarely.
Remember – your engine was designed for use with the motor oil recommended to go with it! Changing it without warning is almost 100% certain to harm your vehicle.
10W30 vs 10W40, Differences #1: Viscosity Explained
At its core, viscosity is the oil’s resistance to flow. Both 10W30 and 10W40 oils possess the same viscosity when cold (indicated by the ’10W’ rating). However, their performance diverges at higher temperatures.
10W30 vs 10W40, Differences #2: Benefits in Chilly Climates
Starting a car during cold spells can be challenging, but both 10W30 and 10W40 ease the process. These oils, with their identical ’10W’ winter rating, function effectively even at -30°C (-22°F). However, 10W30, being a tad thinner, might just have the edge in the coldest conditions.
10W30 vs 10W40, Differences #3: Advantages in Warmer Weather
Both oils are equally adept during cold startups. Yet, 10W40’s higher viscosity becomes a clear advantage as the mercury rises. This oil provides a broader temperature range, ensuring enhanced protection in sweltering conditions. On the other hand, using 10W30 in a hot climate might compromise its lubricating prowess.
10W30 vs 10W40, Differences #4: Fuel Efficiency Dynamics
Thinner oils equate to lesser drag, making them more energy-efficient. 10W30, in this context, is superior to its 10W40 counterpart in offering better fuel economy. However, always prioritize engine health and match the oil to your driving conditions.
10W30 vs 10W40, Differences #5: Diving into Additives
Both 10W30 and 10W40 are multigrade oils containing additives to regulate viscosity. Some also house friction-reducing agents, enhancing fuel economy, or cleaning agents to keep engines spotless. While these grades bear similarities, performance deviations emerge, especially when comparing conventional and synthetic versions. Generally, synthetic oils stand out, delivering superior engine defense and temperature stability.
10W30 vs 10W40, Differences #6: The Universal Choice
For most standard scenarios, 10W30 emerges as the preferred choice. Its versatility, combined with affordability and widespread availability, makes it a staple for light vehicles.
10W30 vs 10W40, Differences #7: For the Heavy Lifters
If you own a heavy-duty or commercial vehicle, 10W40 might be your best bet. This oil, with its increased viscosity, can efficiently deal with the extreme heat generated in such vehicles, providing consistent protection.
10W30 vs 10W40, Differences #8: Tailored for High-Mileage Engines
Engines with significant miles under their belt require special attention. There’s a belief that thicker oils, like 10W40, offer better lubrication in older engines. While this might hold for very old vehicles, modern engines, especially those manufactured in the past decade, don’t adhere to this rule. Advanced machining and enhanced oil formulations have altered the dynamics. Thus, rather than a mere switch in oil grade, opting for a high-mileage version of your preferred oil might be the way to go.
10W30 vs 10W40, Differences #9: Catering to Two-Wheelers
Motorcycles and cars, while both vehicles, have different engine oil requirements. A motorcycle’s oil serves multiple roles, lubricating the engine, clutch, and gearbox. The addition of friction modifiers in car engine oils can adversely impact a motorcycle, causing performance issues. Hence, it’s prudent to opt for oils explicitly crafted for motorcycles, ensuring the correct grade and maximum performance.
In conclusion, while both 10W30 and 10W40 have their unique strengths, the selection ultimately hinges on the vehicle type, climatic conditions, and specific engine requirements. Always consult your vehicle’s manual or an automotive expert when making your choice.
Can I Use 10W40 Instead Of 10W30
The short answer is: change the oil.
It’s just not worth the risk.
If you’re working on a project car or otherwise experimenting, then a new engine oil grade might be good for your car. However, for the 99% of us who drive boring, standard, getting-you-from-A-to-B cars, it’s just best to follow your owner’s manual to the letter.
I think we’ve probably expressed the importance of that enough now.
You should change your oil immediately.
How Do You Do An Oil Change
We have other articles that explain how to change your oil, so won’t go into it in great detail in this one. You can read one here. Alternatively, here‘s a link to “How to Change Your Oil” from Car and Driver.
In short, you’ll need to…
- Have your car on level ground. Not doing this will mean the oil won’t all drain out and you’ll end up with too much when you top it back up. It might also be sludge that stays in, and that’s always bad. If the car isn’t level, some of the oil in the sump won’t drain out properly.
- Open the oil cap at the top of the engine and place the oil pan underneath the car, ready to catch it when it flows out.
- Remove the sump plug, being careful not to shear it off.
- Allow the oil to drain into the oil pan.
- After about ten minutes, once the oil flow has reduced to an occasional drip, replace the sump plug. Tighten it to the correct torque level using a mid-range torque wrench.
- Pour the correct amount of motor oil into the engine through the open oil cap. Make sure that this is the new oil and that it’s the correct grade or multigrade. Never put old oil back into an engine. You’ll probably need a funnel of some kind for this.
- Replace the oil cap and tighten it until it clicks.
- Start the engine. For a few moments, it will clatter around and sound like your worst nightmare. After a few moments though, it should settle down. It’s just as the oil pump gets the oil sent around the engine. If, after ten or fifteen seconds, the noise doesn’t get much softer, turn off the engine and check everything. You might need some professional help.
- If everything has gone to plan, check the oil level on the dipstick. If it’s between the maximum and minimum marks, yay! You’re all good to go.
- Keep an eye on everything over the next 50-100 miles, including checking underneath the car for any oil leaks.
Oil Filter Change
Sometimes manufacturers are nice to mechanics and put the oil filter in places that are easy to reach. Equally, sometimes you have to take a wheel off, remove the wheel arch cover, and reach into the back of the engine with some kind of makeshift 3′-long ratchet (speaking from experience).
Viscosity Facts: Choosing the Right Oil Weight
- Viscosity is the most important property of a lubricant, and understanding viscosity helps reduce wear, improve fuel economy, and increase horsepower.
- “W” in oil nomenclature stands for “Winter,” not “Weight,” and is key to understanding viscosity grades.
- A multi-grade motor oil, like 10W-30, meets more than one grade, providing winter cold start flow properties of a 10W and summer high-temperature thickness of a 30 grade.
- Using oil with a viscosity that is too high can cause excessive oil temperature and increased drag, while a low-viscosity oil can lead to excessive metal-to-metal contact between moving parts.
- Choosing the correct viscosity oil eases starting, reduces friction, and slows wear.
- The difference between a 0W-30 and a 10W-30 is how well each flows at lower temperatures, while the difference between 10W-30 and 10W-40 is the high-temperature viscosity.
- Synthetic 10W-40 provides more effective start-up protection than conventional 20W-50, with enough viscosity to protect piston skirts and bearings when it gets hot.
- Synthetic oil has improved temperature stability, making it a better choice for race engines and serious high-performance engines.
- Selecting the correct viscosity for an application requires knowing the operating temperature of the oil.
10W30 vs 10W40: In Conclusion…
We hope this article has been useful for you and that you now know the difference between 10W30 vs 10W40.
In summary, they are the same when cold, but 10W40 is more viscous once the engine is running at its normal operating temperature.
And – as perhaps the most important thing to take away from this – believe your owner’s manual above everyone else!
Thanks for reading!
10W30 vs 10W40: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
If you’re still curious to learn more about 10W30 vs 10W40, perhaps our FAQs here might help…
Can I Use 10W30 Instead Of 5W30
Generally speaking, it’s a bad idea to deviate from using the motor oil grade that’s been recommended by the manufacturer of your car, as stated in the owner’s manual. If the owner’s manual states that your engine is only compatible with 5W30, then you should only use 5W30 grade oil. From a technical standpoint, both 5W30 and 10W30 have the same viscosity rating when your engine is running at its operating temperature (this being 30). However, they differ greatly when circulating inside a cold engine or if your car is being driven in the winter. In this instance, 5W30 is a thinner and less viscous oil compared to 10W30 (5 vs 10). Therefore, using a thicker and more viscous 10W30 oil inside an engine designed for use with 5W30 will introduce added resistance in the flow, likely damaging your engine.
Is SAE 30 The Same As 10W30
SAE 30 and 10W30 are technically somewhat the same, but only when they’re being subjected to an engine’s operating temperatures of around 100 degrees celsius. Here, they have the same viscosity rating (this being 30) at higher temperatures. However, SAE 30 is a single-grade oil, while 10W30 is a multi-grade oil. This means that 10W30 has been rated to perform well in both warm and cold temperatures. The latter includes how 10W30 oil flows during an engine’s cold start or while driving in the wintertime. On the other hand, SAE 30 has only been validated to maintain its lubricating properties in warmer and hotter temperatures only. Hence, why SAE 30 is suitable for simpler machinery like being used inside a lawnmower. Meanwhile, motor vehicles are best paired with 10W30.
Is 10W30 Thicker Than 10W40
No, it should be that 10W40 is thicker than 10W30. Granted, 10W30 and 10W40 have the same viscosity rating (this being 10) when operated at lower temperatures. This applies during an engine’s cold start or when you’re driving in the winter. However, 10W40 is thicker and more viscous than 10W30 under hotter conditions, such as when your engine’s warmed up to its operating temperatures of around 100 degrees celsius. Just remember that the higher the number after the W, the more viscous it is in hotter temperatures (this time, we’re comparing 40 and 30). This means that at around 100 degrees celsius, 10W40 could maintain its thickness and viscosity better than 10W30. In theory, 10W40 should be able to provide better wear protection compared to 10W30 at higher temperatures, but only if an engine is made for it.
What Does The W Mean In 10W40 Motor Oil
It’s a lot easier if we split up an oil grade rating into two. In the case of 10W40, we can split it into 10W and 40. When classifying motor oils, W stands for Winter, which rates the relative viscosity of engine oil in colder temperatures, such as driving over the winter. The lower the figure (for both numbers, before and after the W), the thinner and less viscous an oil would be. Here, this means that in hotter temperatures, such as when an engine’s at its operating temperature of 100 degrees celsius, 10W40 has a 40 weight viscosity rating. This makes it more viscous than most engine oils, which are 30 weight. Meanwhile, at colder temperatures, like during a cold start, 10W40 has a 10W weight viscosity rating. This makes it more viscous than 5W oils, but thinner than 15W.
Can You Mix Oil Brands
For the most part, you can safely mix oil brands together. For example, if you want to mix a Mobil 1 solution with AMSOIL, that’s more than possible. All API-grade oils are required to be compatible with one another, and won’t cause issues. Moreover, you could even mix synthetic, conventional, and semi-synthetic oils together without any problems. However, this doesn’t mean that you should mix oil brands or types together if you can avoid it. For instance, using a high-performance oil that features numerous additives with a lower-grade oil will diminish any benefits of using the former. In short, your engine might not be able to run at its best, and it’s not recommended to mix oils together. It’s okay to do that in an emergency, but otherwise, only stick with one brand or type of oil at a time.