Driving your F-150 with a defective oxygen sensor can harm the engine or catalytic converter. Therefore, it is vital to understand the function and location of the O2 sensor including the bank 2 sensor 1 location in your Ford F150.
Locating, diagnosing, and fixing O2 sensors should be simpler with the aid of this manual and the usage of cylinder firing orders as a reference. There are typically multiple oxygen sensors in automobiles. There will be one in each exhaust manifold as well as one in front of the catalytic converter.
At least four oxygen sensors are often installed in modern automobiles at strategic locations in the exhaust system. In this case, we will go through the F-150’s O2 sensors, and their locations.
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- Oxygen Sensor
- Workings Of An O2 Sensor
- O2 Sensor Locations
- Upstream And Downstream O2 Sensors
- Bank 1 vs Bank 2 O2 Sensors
- O2 Sensor OBD Trouble Codes
- O2 Sensor Replacement
- Final Conclusion
You probably never give the oxygen sensor in your vehicle any thought. Even though you might not know what it performs, it is necessary for your car to run regularly and perform at its best. An oxygen sensor is also referred to as an O2 Sensor. It produces a reading depending on the oxygen level in the exhaust system of an automobile.
In 1976, the first oxygen sensor was installed on a Volvo 240. Oxygen sensors were first used in California automobiles in 1980. By 1981, federal emission standards had essentially made O2 sensors a requirement for all cars and light trucks.
The oxygen sensor is in charge of determining the amount of oxygen in the exhaust. It further communicates its findings to the car’s computer (ECM). The ECM will modify the amount of fuel injected into the intake air stream in response to the oxygen sensor data.
The catalytic converter and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve are two examples of the parts that the car makes adjustments through. Together, these parts regulate emissions to make sure the car is operating in compliance with the established toxicity output standard.
Made out of ceramics, the oxygen sensor has many pores that are electrodes with platinum coatings encased in a threaded shell. The sensor is bolted into the exhaust pipe with half of it protruding. The majority of sensors go through a heat test to make sure they can quickly achieve their ideal operating temperature.
Working Of An Oxygen Sensor
Knowing how oxygen sensors operate can enable you to troubleshoot issues without entirely relying on a professional mechanic. A microphone uses piezoelectric generation to create an electrical voltage signal from mechanical vibration. Similar to this, oxygen sensors function as low-voltage producers.
An oxygen sensor, when heated up, functions as a little generator and generates its own voltage. The O2 sensors always reside in the exhaust system and measure the amount of unburned oxygen that is present there. Most automobiles utilize an O2 sensor that generates voltage.
The sensor’s tip is put into the exhaust. It contains a bulb with an interior coating of zirconium ceramic and an exterior coating of porous platinum. Two platinum strips are used as electrodes or connections inside the light bulb. Through the sensor housing, the interior of the bulb is vented to the atmosphere outside.
The oxygen content of the exhaust flow is continuously measured by the O2 sensors. It is constantly compared to the oxygen content of the surrounding air. The fuel mixture is then modified by the engine controller using the sensor’s voltage signal. This results in a feedback loop that continuously rebalances the fuel mixture.
The difference in oxygen levels across the O2 sensor bulb when it is exposed to hot exhaust results in a low voltage of between 0.1 and 0.9 volts. As such, you have to be very diligent with spotting any symptoms of a bad O2 sensor.
Less oxygen will be present in the exhaust if the fuel mixture is burning rich. Hence the voltage will be higher—up to 0.9 volts—than 0.45 volts. More oxygen will be found in the exhaust if the fuel mixture is burning lean. In this case, the voltage will be below 0.45 volts and maybe as low as 0.1 volts.
O2 Sensor Locations
A number of variables affect how many oxygen sensors a vehicle has. Oxygen sensors must be installed upstream and downstream of each catalytic converter in vehicles manufactured after 1996. As a result, although most cars have two oxygen sensors, those with dual exhaust on their V6 or V8 engines have four.
One on each engine bank that is upstream and downstream of the catalytic converter. The “Upstream Oxygen Sensor” that is located before the catalytic converter is the “Sensor 1”. Sensor 2 is placed near the muffler underneath the car.
As a result, it goes by the name “Downstream Oxygen Sensor”. Simply put, Sensor 1 is located before the catalytic converter, and Sensor 2 is located after the catalytic converter.
They are sometimes referred to as pre-cat and post-cat oxygen sensors. These terms are given depending on where they are in relation to the catalytic converter. The post-cat sensor details the oxygen in the system after the catalytic converter has treated it. On the contrary, the pre-cat sensor details the oxygen in the system before treatment.
Upstream And Downstream O2 Sensors
The number of O2 sensors in a Ford F-150 varies depending on the model year and the vehicle’s configuration. The upstream O2 sensor is typically located before the catalytic converter in the exhaust manifold. It is the nearest to the engine and is the most crucial.
The upstream O2 sensor aids in maintaining the proper air-to-fuel ratio in the combustion chambers. It does this to maintain the best fuel efficiency and engine performance. Any problem with this sensor could result in a variety of performance problems for your F-150.
The F-150’s downstream O2 sensor monitors the amount of pollutants flowing through the catalytic converter. It is situated further down the exhaust system, after the converter.
The downstream O2 sensor’s primary job is to monitor the catalytic converter’s performance. The performance of the engine is unaffected if this sensor malfunctions. However, the check engine light may illuminate with error codes relating to catalyst efficiency displayed.
Upstream O2 Sensor – Sensor 1
In relation to the catalytic converter, O2 sensor 1 is the upstream oxygen sensor. In order to control the air-fuel mixture, it measures the air-to-fuel ratio of the exhaust leaving the exhaust manifold.
After this process, it transmits high- and low-voltage signals to the powertrain control module. The powertrain control module increases the amount of fuel in the mixture when it detects a low voltage (lean) signal.
On the contrary, if the powertrain control module receives a high voltage (rich) signal, it leans the mixture by reducing the amount of fuel it provides to the mixture. A “closed feedback control loop” is when the oxygen sensor input is used by the powertrain control module to control the fuel mixture.
As a result of this closed-loop function, the catalytic converter can reduce emissions. It does this by keeping the overall average ratio of the fuel mixture in the right balance by continuously switching between rich and lean.
However, the powertrain control module switches to “open loop operation” when an engine is started cold or if an oxygen sensor fails. The powertrain control module mandates a fixed rich fuel mixture in open-loop operation even as the oxygen sensor is not sending a signal.
Fuel consumption and emissions rise as a result of the open-loop operation. Many modern oxygen sensors have heating components to help them quickly reach operating temperature. This is in order to reduce the amount of time spent in open-loop operations.
Downstream O2 Sensor – Sensor 2
In relation to the catalytic converter, oxygen sensor 2 is the downstream oxygen sensor. To ensure that the catalytic converter is operating properly, it measures the air-fuel ratio leaving the converter.
The powertrain control module continuously switches between rich and lean air-fuel mixes as a result of the input from the upstream oxygen sensor (sensor 1). Meanwhile, the catalytic converter attempts to maintain the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio of 14.7:1.
As a result, the sensor 2 downstream oxygen sensor should generate a consistent voltage of about 0.45 volts. And for those who are curious, we’ve done a detailed look at what an air-to-fuel ratio is, as well as what the most ideal and best air-fuel ratio would be.
Bank 1 vs Bank 2
Simply put, banks 1 and 2 refer to the engine’s sides. Bank 1 is adjacent to cylinder 1 on that side. The side that has cylinder 2 is Bank 2. If a vehicle has a transverse engine, Bank 1 is often located near the front of the vehicle.
Checking your car’s repair manual is the simplest way to find the correct cylinder bank. Additionally, you can look for any stamps bearing cylinder numbers on the cylinder head or block. The side of the engine where the crankshaft pulley is located is in the front of the engine and not the side of the engine that faces the front.
Because different engines can have cylinder 1 on different sides, you can’t generalize and claim that bank 1 is on the driver’s side or vice versa. Guessing which side bank 1 or bank 2 is on can be confusing and deceptive.
Just keep in mind that bank 1 is the one with the odd number of cylinders starting from cylinder 1 while bank 2 contains cylinders 2, 4, 6, and so on. The sensor number indicates where the O2 sensor or the exhaust temperature sensor is mounted on the exhaust system.
Sensor 1 is nearest to the engine, and sensor 2 is located farther back, near the exhaust system. Hence as we mentioned, sensor 1 which is located before the catalytic converter’s front side is the upstream O2 sensor. Similarly, sensor 2 located after the catalytic converter’s rear end is the downstream O2 sensor.
In a Ford F-150 or in Fords in general, cylinder #1 is located on the passenger side and the passenger side is designated as “Bank 1”. As a result, the engine’s driver’s side is designated by “Bank 2”.
Bank 1 Sensor 1
Bank 1 Sensor 1 Location Ford F150 – Passenger side before converter (front)
The bank 1 sensor 1 of the Ford F-150 should be located underneath the truck on the right or passenger side, next to the engine before the catalytic converter. To reach it, look 12 inches above the converter, close to the firewall. The bank 1 sensor 1 may be to blame if the F-150’s onboard diagnostic system has lately generated a P0131 code.
Bank 1 Sensor 2
Bank 1 Sensor 2 Location – Passenger side after converter (rear)
The bank 1 sensor 1 denotes the downstream sensor. It will be located in the passenger-side-bank of the engine only but after the catalytic converter further underneath the truck.
Bank 1 Sensor 2 Upstream Or Downstream – Any “sensor 2” including the bank 1 sensor 2 is a downstream sensor. Downstream sensors are placed after the catalytic converter.
Bank 2 Sensor 1
Bank 2 Sensor 1 Location Ford F150 – Driver side before converter (front)
The engine’s driver’s side is designated by Bank 2. As we already know, the sensor facing the engine in front of the catalytic converter is known as sensor 1.
Bank 2 Sensor 1 Upstream Or Downstream – Any sensor 1 including Bank 2 sensor 1 is an upstream sensor. These sensors are located before the catalytic converter in the engine bay.
Bank 2 Sensor 2
Bank 2 Sensor 2 Location – Driver side after converter (rear)
The bank 2 sensor 2 is also on the driver’s side of the F-150. It is located underneath the truck in the exhaust system after the catalytic converter.
Bank 2 Sensor 1 Location Ford F150: O2 Sensor Fault Codes
If your O2 (oxygen) sensor has gone awry, you should get an OBD fault code. While there are many diagnostics codes related to a faulty oxygen sensor to help you narrow down and troubleshoot the issue, here’s a brief list of some of the more common ones:
P0130 – Bank 1 Sensor 1
The Engine Control Module (ECM) sets the P0130 OBD code when it is unable to detect any activity from the oxygen sensor situated on the Bank 1 side of your engine and exhaust system. The amount of oxygen the oxygen sensor detects in the exhaust system at any one time determines the voltage it broadcasts.
When the ECM notices that the relevant sensor is reporting a value that deviates from the expected range, it sets off the P0130 or one of its related codes, P131, P132, P133, or P134. The P0130 and its associated codes track precisely what transpires between Bank 1 Sensor 1 and the ECM.
The exhaust gases are constantly sampled by the O2. The airflow sensors, intake air temperature (IAT sensor), which you can learn more about in our guide on the P0113 Jeep code or P0113 Dodge code, and throttle position sensors (TPS) are all affected by how the gas pedal is used. It also initiates the fuel trim adjustments.
Therefore, codes such as P0133, for example, will show that the ECM has detected that the O2 sensor is not adapting its voltage output to the changing air-to-fuel ratio quickly enough. This is what is meant when a circuit is said to have a “slow reaction,” which denotes that it is not responding quickly enough.
P0136 – Bank 1 Sensor 2
The oxygen sensor 2 is located after the catalytic converter and checks the catalytic converter for the bank 1 side of the engine is the subject of a P0136 code. It collects voltage measurements depending on the oxygen content of the exhaust and transmits them to the Engine Control Module (ECM).
The ECM then uses them to control the fuel injection levels in your engine. The ECM has concluded that Sensor 2, which is located behind your car’s catalytic converter, is failing whenever the P0136 code is displayed.
When the sensor 2 voltage is low for more than two minutes, the ECM/ECU sets the P0136 code. If the O2 sensor responds slowly or not at all, the ECM will set the codes P0139 or P0140, accordingly. When the ECM notices a voltage reading that is higher than usual, the P0138 code is set (usually about 1.2 volts).
P0150 – Bank 2 Sensor 1
One of the oxygen sensors, which are some of the most frequent causes of a check engine light in your car, is the subject of a P0150 code. A fault with the Sensor 1 on the Bank 2 side of the vehicle is what the P0150 code represents. In essence, the sensor could be operating low or high and not meeting the predetermined voltage limit.
When the ECM collects a reading from Sensor 1 on the Bank 2 side that is outside of the 0.1 to 0.9-volt range, the P0150 code is set. The side of the engine without the #1 cylinder is referred to as Bank 2.
The first oxygen sensor, Sensor 1, is situated downstream from the engine. If the ECM detects a low or high voltage, it will also set off the associated codes P0151 or P0152, respectively. If the circuit relays a sluggish response or no answer at all, codes P0153 or P0154 will also be set off.
P0156 – Bank 2 Sensor 2
When Sensor 2 on the Bank 2 side of the engine isn’t working properly, the P0156 code is set. The ECM will set the P0156 code if the oxygen sensor maintains a low voltage for an extended period of time or simply stops emitting readings.
The ECM receives measurements from the O2 sensor between 0.1 and 0.9 volts depending on how much oxygen it detects in the exhaust. Low values, which are closer to 0.1, show that the exhaust system is operating lean and the sensor is detecting more air in it.
The ECM will generate the P0156 code if the condition persists for a long time (often more than 20 seconds).
If the low voltage continues or if the ECM doesn’t hear from Sensor 2 for a lengthy period of time, the related codes P0157 and P0159 may also be set off. If no voltage readings are being emitted and communication between the sensor and the ECM totally breaks down, the P0160 code is set.
Last but not least, the sensor’s reading of high voltage, which results in a rich exhaust reading, sets off the P0158 code. This indicates that there is not enough air detected in the exhaust, and the ECM will attempt to correct the situation by reducing the fuel-to-air ratio.
Bank 2 Sensor 1 Location Ford F150: Replacing O2 Sensor
O2 sensors require replacement every 75,000 to 100,000 miles as they degrade in performance over time, just like any other auto component. The tip of the sensor will eventually lose its ability to produce electricity as contaminants build up there.
Emissions and fuel consumption may increase as a result of the sensor being slow and taking longer to respond to oxygen variations. Several external substances that can accidentally enter the exhaust system can contaminate and destroy a sensor.
These include coolant from a leak, lead from improper fuel, using the wrong sort of RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanization) sealant, phosphorous from oil burning, etc. A considerable drop in fuel efficiency and a rich mixture is among the prominent signs of a malfunctioning oxygen sensor.
This does not imply that the sensor has failed immediately. Be careful to inspect the ignition system for any issues as well as the vacuum lines for a leak. Keep in mind that the O2 sensor only provides a reading after combustion has taken place.
According to RepairPal, oxygen sensor replacement for a Ford F-150 typically costs between $280 and $319. Between $47 and $60 is the expected cost of labor, while the cost of the O2 sensor is between $232 and $259.
Taxes and other fees are not included in this range, and your particular model year or geographic area isn’t taken into account.
Bank 2 Sensor 1 Location Ford F150: Conclusion
The main factor in early catalytic converter failures is faulty oxygen sensors. You should take fast action and get your F-150’s O2 sensor tested by a qualified mechanic if you suspect a problem. Because catalytic converters, which can easily cost you over $1,000 to replace, are far more expensive than reasonably priced O2 sensors.
You now know about the various types of O2 sensors and their locations. Knowing the various engine banks and the O2 sensors positioned on each of them would help you in diagnosing your F-150 easier.
Also, having an understating of the trouble codes listed related to the O2 sensors will further help you understand it better when an issue arises.
FAQs On Bank 2 Sensor 1 Location Ford F150
If you’re curious to learn more about the bank 2 sensor 1 location Ford F150, our FAQs here might help…
Where Is The O2 Sensor Located
The exhaust system will always house the O2 sensors. They are responsible for detecting the amount of oxygen that is still present in the exhaust that is being expelled from the engine. It further relays that information to the engine control computer of the vehicle.
Can A Bad O2 Sensor Cause A Misfire
Misfires that don’t affect just one cylinder are often caused by your engine not receiving enough gasoline or oxygen to function properly. It can be the result of a component in your fuel system failing. A faulty mass airflow or oxygen sensor could provide inaccurate data to the engine’s electronics, resulting in a misfire.
Where Is The Bank 1 Sensor 2 Located
Simply put, banks 1 and 2 refer to the engine’s sides. Most frequently, bank 1 houses the first cylinder from the front of the engine. Meanwhile, bank 2 is on the opposite side. In simple words, bank 1 Sensor 2 is located after the cat-converter on the side of the engine that contains the first cylinder which could be either side depending on the manufacturer.
Where Is The Bank 2 Sensor 1 Located
Sensor 1 is generally placed in front of the catalytic converter. Bank 2 Sensor 1 is located on the side of the engine with cylinder 2 in the firing order. It might be found on either the driver or passenger side of a vehicle. This position mainly depends on the make of the automobile and the driver’s orientation.
How To Tell If The O2 Sensor Is Bad
Rough idling, engine misfires, and a significant rise in fuel consumption are indications of a bad O2 sensor. A faulty O2 sensor might result in a 40% reduction in fuel efficiency. A general misfire may also appear along with a check engine light when an O2 sensor is malfunctioning.
How Many O2 Sensors Are In A Car
Your emissions are kept under check by the O2 sensor. Your car’s emissions system includes the oxygen sensor. It gauges how much oxygen is present in your engine. Depending on the engine type, make, and model, your car may have one, two, three, or four O2 sensors.
How To Tell Which O2 Sensor Is Bad
Vehicles may have several oxygen sensors, sometimes on either side of the engine, depending on the engine configuration. You can determine which sensor has to be replaced—the upstream (top) or downstream (bottom) sensor—and on what bank (side) of the engine by reading the fault codes.
What Causes An O2 Sensor To Go Bad
The O2 sensor in your car accumulates combustion byproducts as you drive. Lead, sulfur, and gasoline additives eventually build up on the sensor. The sensor cannot provide the necessary signal because of this junk. At this time, a replacement is required.