Engines produce carbon emissions that are released into the environment. That is how a regular emission system of an engine is designed. That is exactly why gasoline engines are a controversial matter. But a special unit in the engine that is a charcoal canister – also known as evaporative emission control canister (EVAP) – functions in the emission system to soak up vapor from the fuel before release. Read this article to find out about bad charcoal canister symptoms to look out for!
To simply state the function of a charcoal canister, what it does is absorb harmful carbon emissions produced from the engine and redirect them back to the fuel tank. It helps prevent toxic release into the environment. But your charcoal canister can go bad at any time.
A bad charcoal canister can cause plenty of problems. Eventually, you’ll have a bad driving experience no matter how well you maintain your car. There are a few bad charcoal canister symptoms one should look out for. As a bad canister can hinder the functionality of your vehicle, make sure to keep an eye on these symptoms and their solutions. So let’s take a look at those symptoms.
How Does A Charcoal Canister Work?
The charcoal canister works by collecting the fumes produced by the gasoline in the tank as a byproduct. Rather than being discharged into the air, which isn’t particularly eco-friendly, these gases are absorbed by a charcoal canister.
The charcoal inside the canister has been designed to be exceptionally absorbent, making it very efficient in absorbing the vapor produced by the fuel in your car.
As this vapor accumulates inside of the canister over time, it will reach a stage where it must be released in some form. This emitted vapor is sent into the engine via the canister’s exhaust line and purge valve, where it is burned off.
These vapors would either gather in the gas tank or be released into the air if the charcoal canister was not there. These fumes are frequently poisonous and hazardous to the environment.
The charcoal in this section is activated carbon, which is made to be extremely porous. These pores contribute to the canister’s ability to absorb as much gas and pollutants as possible. Because the canister gathers this vapor and then utilizes it to run the engine, the EVAP system makes automobiles more environmentally friendly and efficient.
Because of the charcoal canister’s basic design, it is often self-sufficient. However, there are times when it is damaged or breaks down. One of the most typical causes of charcoal canister difficulties is “filling up” your gas tank, which can result in an excess of gasoline flooding the canister.
The charcoal canister is normally found under the car, often near the fuel tank. It is frequently covered behind plastic coverings, making it difficult to find. It is sometimes found in the engine compartment. However, depending on the brand or model of your car, the location of the charcoal canister might vary substantially.
How To Detect A Bad Charcoal Canister?
Many cars are equipped with built-in computers and indication lights or other warning systems. These systems are designed to alert you if the car’s charcoal canister becomes broken or damaged and can no longer perform its function effectively.
Many drivers never have to deal with a faulty charcoal canister since they are, to some extent, self-sustainable. They are equipped with a mechanism that cleanses the charcoal filter in the canister on a regular basis and passes the caught fumes straight into the engine, where they are consumed during the combustion process. This maintains the vehicle’s fuel efficiency while preventing toxic gases from entering the environment.
Though the mechanism that allows for this recycling of gases ever fails, even though the charcoal filter is indeed in excellent condition, the vehicle’s fuel efficiency may suffer. That can lead your car to have a defective charcoal canister that has to be repaired or replaced.
Bad Charcoal Canister Symptoms
There are a few things that are direct, tell-tale signs of a bad charcoal canister. Listed below are a few of the most common symptoms that you should be on the lookout for. If you notice any one of these symptoms in your car, it might be time for a trip to the mechanic.
Check Engine Light Is On
The engine control unit continually monitors all the sensors in your vehicle engine. When or if one fails, the unit is designed to store a failure code and illuminate the check engine light on the dashboard to alert passengers that something isn’t right.
This is essentially what might happen if the charcoal canister becomes compromised. The EVAP system is a confined system that must maintain a certain pressure.
If the engine control unit detects a leak or blockage in the system, the check engine light will be on. To determine why the check engine light is lit, you can apply a diagnostic scanner to read the issue codes.
This is understandable given that the charcoal canister’s duty is to capture hazardous fumes. When the canister is unable to do so, a large number of dangerous gases are discharged into the environment. As a consequence, the carbon emission rate from the exhaust system will increase.
Sadly, without an emission test, detecting a spike in the exhaust discharge is difficult. Every car in the United States is required to pass this testing every one or two years, based on state requirements. If the automobile fails the test, the first thing to do is to check the charcoal canister.
A broken charcoal canister is evidently ineffective at its purpose. The longer you wait to repair the problem, the more carbon emissions the malfunctioning charcoal canister will emit.
Poor Engine Performance
If nothing else is noticeable enough, what can spark concerns for you is noticing a generally poorer engine performance.
So why would your charcoal canister hamper your engine performance? When carbon emissions are not being redirected back effectively to the combustion chamber, the air to fuel mixture is compromised. And when that happens, your engine cannot gather sufficient power for acceleration.
You might begin to notice that when you hit the gas pedal, the car acceleration rate is not the same as before – which is a sign that your canister has gone bad. Or, it can also be that you are not able to accelerate at the speed you normally should, meaning that your canister is a faulty one.
Decreasing Fuel Economy
It goes without saying that any engine-related matter will cause a drop in the fuel economy of your car. If you start to notice your vehicle consuming more fuel than it used or in general, you might already suspect what is causing it.
A bad charcoal canister will prevent fumes from being redirected to the combustion chamber which will then, automatically, cause your engine to draw more fuel from the tank. That is, more fuel than your engine might need.
This can lead to you spending much more than you normally would on weekly or monthly gas for your car. So if you let this continue, brace yourself for some extra gas money.
Trouble With Ignition Or Starting The Engine
While it may not really be a problem with your ignition keys, it may begin to seem like that if you start to face issues with starting the engine.
A bad charcoal canister can cause air leakage, which can make it difficult for your engine to activate. The leak allows external air to get in and disrupts the air to fuel mixture. So, what happens is that pressure in the combustion chamber becomes insufficient for your engine to start.
The engine might splutter or make unusual sounds before starting. It can refuse to start at all.
Strong Fuel Odor
Another very noticeable sign that your car may be giving you is a strong fuel odor. This is again, in direct linkage to your charcoal canister. A faulty or damaged canister will not be able to absorb emissions well, or at all, for that matter, which allows fumes to escape. These are toxic fumes and have a very strong fuel odor. It is definitely not something you would want to be exposed to for long, because it can make you sick.
Ideally, you would not want to be driving your vehicle if you start to get a strong fuel odor. You should get it checked immediately to confirm that it is, in fact, a bad charcoal canister and have it fixed right away.
Yes, a bad charcoal canister can cause pinging sounds. How? A faulty or damaged charcoal canister is not able to effectively dispose of toxic carbon emissions.
Because of this, the air and fuel mixture ignition is impacted in the combustion chamber. In combination, it creates a pinging noise.
If you feel that your engine is making a similar sound, get it checked right away. There could be other underlying causes for these noises as well but, if you notice two or more of these symptoms together, then it is most likely that you’re dealing with a bad charcoal canister.
If your car shows any one or more of these symptoms mentioned above, there is a high chance of a bad charcoal canister. Even though it is possible to keep driving your car with a bad charcoal canister, but we strongly advise against that. Get your car to a workshop or a professional mechanic to have the charcoal canister replaced as soon as possible.
If you are certain that your canister is simply clogged and not faulty or damaged, you can take matters into your own hands. Considering you have the right tools at hand, you can check out this quick video to get a better idea of how to clean a charcoal fuel vapor canister.
Why Does A Charcoal Canister Go Bad Or Becomes Clogged?
There are a couple of factors that can lead to your canister failing or becoming damaged. While the most common answer is that the charcoal canister will give out, eventually, over time and with use, there are certain things that can cause it to fail sooner and faster.
One of the biggest and most common reasons why charcoal canisters fail is because of overfilling gas. When you top off your gas tank or fill it to the brim, it causes an overflow of fuel and floods the gas tank. And this, done periodically over time, degrades your charcoal canister.
Generally, a charcoal canister is self-sustaining and will only degrade with time. But it can also become prone to fail if it is often overheated. This is often the same reason why charcoal canisters become clogged.
How Can You Change A Bad Or Failing Charcoal Canister Yourself?
If you know the basics about car engines and charcoal canisters, you can probably try your hand at changing it yourself. It’s not rocket science and should not take much time.
Here’s a simple step-by-step rundown of how you can change a bad charcoal canister easily in 5 steps.
Step One: Preparing The Car
Ensure that your car is safely parked on a flat, stable surface.
Step Two: Locating Fuel System
You can locate your fuel system relay on your relay panel. It should be marked as C/Opn.
Step Three: Locating the Vapor Canister
Locate the vapor canister, which should be close to the rear tire on the driver’s side of the vehicle. You should look for a box or sphere-like plastic container connected to vapor hoses and an electric harness.
Step Four: Removing The Vapor Canister
Once you have surely located the vapor/charcoal canister, you can safely remove it. First, remove the top and bottom lines from the canister using a flat-headed screwdriver. The canister should generally have three lines on top and one on the bottom. Then, to remove it from the bracket, you can use a ratchet and a socket, as per requirement.
Step Five: Install The New Canister
To install the new canister, slide it into position carefully next to the fuel tank. Reattach the lines in the same manner as they were opened.
The process does look easy and simple. But if you have zero car experience or are unsure about your skills, it might be better to visit the workshop.
What To Do If You Can’t Replace Or Unclog A Bad Charcoal Canister Yourself?
It would be foolish to assume you know all about charcoal canisters and how to work around them. Not everyone likes to dabble in car parts and that is nothing to be ashamed of. There is also the question of having the right tools at hand.
It’s okay if you don’t have the necessary tools to replace a bad charcoal canister. In fact, it is quite normal to not have these tools readily at hand. Even if you did, you may not be sure of how successful you might be at unclogging or replacing it yourself.
The most you can do is to look for the bad charcoal canister symptoms we listed above. Once you have detected the bad charcoal canister symptoms, your first task should be to contact a mechanic. We will give you an idea about the costs so you can decide on the perfect time for a visit to the workshop.
How Much Would It Cost To Replace A Bad Charcoal Canister?
When the EVAP emissions canister breaks, it generates an OBD-II error code (0499) that is recorded by the vehicle’s ECU. This system informs a mechanic that the EVAP system is under pressure.
If the EVAP canister is broken or malfunctioning, it must be replaced because it cannot be maintained or repaired on the car.
The price range to have a bad charcoal canister replaced will vary depending on the make and model of your vehicle. For a general range, a replacement canister (the part only) will cost you somewhere around $200 to $600. The prices can also spike higher, again based on the make and model of your vehicle.
The replacement labor charge will cost you around $50 to $150. This is again, a generalized price range. Your costs will vary depending on your mechanic, company, and state. The cost can also spike if you have a particularly complicated situation, where more would be required.
Is It Safe To Drive With A Bad Charcoal Canister?
As a conscious citizen, if you suspect your vehicle to have a bad charcoal canister, or begin to notice any of the symptoms, you should look to have it replaced right away. The biggest concern with driving with a faulty canister is the toxic emissions that your vehicle will be letting out into the environment.
A damaged EVAP system will be letting out more fumes, so, as a conscious driver with regards to your carbon footprint, you would ideally have your charcoal canister fixed as soon as possible.
If that is not a concern for you, yes, technically you can still drive with a damaged charcoal canister. However, if the leakage is producing a strong fuel odor inside your vehicle, you might want to speed up the wait to get to your mechanic.
Fuel vapors can be extremely harmful to your overall health. Inhaling small amounts can lead to any number of the following symptoms:
- Throat irritation
- Dry cough
- Difficulty breathing
Driving with a bad charcoal canister producing strong fuel odors is quite ill-advised. It is not safe to drive if you start to show any of the following symptoms. If you are at the wheel and you start to feel dizzy or disoriented, you may end up crashing the car. It is definitely not safe for your health, especially considering long-time exposure.
If you have to still drive with a bad charcoal canister, consider cranking down the windows to let fresh air flow in as much as you can. That would allow the fuel odors to pass. It is a temporary solution but one that should help to some extent.
Does Running Without EVAP/Charcoal Canister Cause Any Problems For the Vehicle?
A straightforward answer to that question would be, no. Your vehicle will run fine without an EVAP or charcoal canister. Most people, who have driven cars without it, will tell you they have not witnessed any discernable changes in their vehicle after taking it out. If you didn’t know beforehand, you won’t be able to tell there is something missing from the car engine.
But there is an opposite side to the argument and one which claims that the car runs more smoothly with the EVAP/charcoal canister attached. Whether it’s true or not depends on the driver. Maybe some of them can actually feel the difference.
Either way, it is simply better to have one attached because the toxic fumes that escape without the canister are terrible for both the body and the environment.
Facts about Charcoal Canisters for Emission Control in Vehicles
- A charcoal canister is a vital component of a car’s emissions control system, as it absorbs fuel vapor, prevents excessive exhaust, and contributes to reducing pollution.
- The canister is typically located close to the fuel tank, under the car, and is rectangular or cylindrical in shape, with input and output ports located side by side.
- The charcoal canister is filled with activated charcoal, which absorbs and stores gasoline vapors until the engine is used.
- The Evaporative Emission Control System (EVAP) uses the charcoal canister to ensure that no air flows into the space, allowing fuel to become a gas by lowering pressure in the gas tank and increasing the evaporation rate.
- Failure of the charcoal canister can be caused by overfilling the gas tank, which floods the canister, leading to negative impacts on its function.
- Symptoms of a bad charcoal canister include a Check Engine Light, higher emissions, poor engine performance and gas mileage, fuel odor, and pinging sounds.
- While it’s possible to drive without a charcoal canister, it’s not recommended as it can result in toxic gas fumes escaping and failing emissions tests.
- To test a car’s charcoal canister, a small handheld vacuum pump can be used to check if the purge valve is working correctly.
- Clogged charcoal canisters can be unclogged by using an air compressor and an air line nozzle to blow air into the canister for up to two minutes.
- Replacing a charcoal canister can cost between $150 and $500, depending on the vehicle’s model and make, and the replacement process involves disconnecting vapor lines, electrical connectors, and hose clamps.
When your charcoal canister breaks, it might be alarming because of the potential implications. The goal is to get expert assistance and resolve the situation as soon as feasible. In the long term, early diagnosis and repair will save you money.
There are various things your vehicle can face without a charcoal canister. If you begin to notice any of the bad charcoal canister symptoms, ideally, you shouldn’t delay in taking your car to a mechanic. If you’re fairly comfortable removing and replacing it yourself, well, now you have a handy step-by-step guide to help you!
These tools have been tried and tested by our team, they are ideal for fixing your car at home.