Okay, maybe there aren’t exactly 50 whole shades of transmission fluid color that you’ll have to pay close attention to. However, bearing in mind a few key shades is crucial in upkeeping the wellbeing of your car and gearbox. As with most other mechanical components, such as how the engine requires motor oil or how the differential needs gear oil, your gearbox needs its transmission fluids.
Otherwise, you’ll soon notice just how quickly the complexities of transmission can destroy themselves. If not, it’ll keep wearing itself down until you need a brand new gearbox installed, or have the old one rebuilt. Neither of those situations is preferable, given the expense. It’s amazing to see the extent of gearboxes going awry with issues aplenty. Be it gear slippage, stalling, or very slow shifts.
Yet, it’s also fascinating to see just how many of these common issues can trace their troubles back to the transmission fluid. Something as simple as a regular fluid flush and change can work wonders in preventing the transmission from wear and eventual failure. For that reason alone, there’s no excuse to not pay attention to your transmission fluid color. Just the hue is a big enough clue.
- What Is Transmission Fluid?
- Types Of Fluid
- Synthetic Vs. Oil
- Colors, And What It Means
Why Does Your Car’s Gearbox Need Transmission Fluid?
As we’re looking at transmission fluid color, we should perhaps address an important question. Why does your car even need transmission fluid – or sometimes referred to as “gearbox oil” – anyway? To answer that, we should remind ourselves just how complex a gearbox is. On average, a transmission has upwards of 1,000 components, each one designed and engineered with maximal precision.
These include the planetary gear sets (or cogs) themselves, clutch packs, torque converter, countless seals and gaskets, transmission fluid pump, bands, and countless more. These mechanical parts have to work in tandem with one another. With so many moving sections inside a gearbox, naturally, this is going to lead to quite a lot of friction. In other words, parts grinding or rubbing against each other.
This isn’t ideal, as that metal-on-metal contact could wear out and destroy your transmission within mere moments. To resolve this, you have transmission fluid. It plays numerous key roles, which can include:
- Provide a layer of greasy lubrication (or a thin lubricating film) between the many moving parts to prevent excessive wear or damage.
- Ensures the optimal frictional properties of each component to maintain a smooth and efficient clutch engagement.
- Behaves as a pressurized hydraulic fluid for certain parts, such as the clutch packs, to operate.
- Acts as a part-time corrosion inhibitor and adds protection against wear and tear for the planetary gear sets, as well as other components.
- Needs to have low electrical conductivity, thus preventing shorting of the various electrical parts in and around the gearbox.
- In reducing friction, it helps to cool down and lower the operating temperatures of the transmission, as a pseudo-coolant.
- Must be formulated to circulate between hot and cold sections repeatedly (between 40°C to 200°C), and flow through narrow channels and valve assemblies.
What Are The Different Types Of Transmission Fluid Out There?
In a nutshell, we can summarise the functioning of the transmission fluid with two words – “cooling”, and “lubrication”. It does a whole lot more too, but these are perhaps the most prevalent traits of gearbox oil. This, among other reasons, is why you have to be aware of your transmission fluid color. Only with a healthy formulation and flow of transmission fluid can your gearbox work right.
Should you neglect its care, your gearbox will run into a host of issues. In the end, you’re left with a broken-down transmission that’s only worth for its spares. But before we get into transmission fluid color, we should also understand that there are several different types of fluids out there. Each one has a varying chemical make-up and has been designed for their respective gearboxes.
It doesn’t matter if you have a racy gated manual box, a speedy automatic, or a smooth CVT, there’s a fluid just for you. Like most cars these days, they run on automated gearboxes – whether it’s conventional gears or a CVT – so we’ve become accustomed to hearing “ATF”. That’s ‘automatic transmission fluid‘, just so you know. You must make sure you get the right type and mix of gearbox fluid.
Or else, using the wrong type of gearbox oil could cause problems down the line, too. While the list of each variation of transmission fluid is practically endless, here’s a list of the most popular ones, so you could understand more about it. It’ll at least help us along with this guide on transmission fluid color:
1. Type F (For Old Fords)
This is purely for a bit of fun, but it also lets us look back in time to see how far gearboxes have gone. You can still find some Type F gearbox oils on auto parts store shelves here and there. For the most part, however, they’ve not been adopted in large quantities since the 1970s.
Back then, it was mainly used in Ford-branded vehicles, hence the name, ‘Type F’. Rather uniquely, and when compared to other conventional ATFs that we’re familiar with, Type F fluids don’t have a friction modifier. The latter is a more recent invention and inclusion into gearbox fluids.
Friction modifiers are an anti-wear additive that helps to minimize contact on metal surfaces. With Type F, it was designed to be used in Fords back in the day, which had clutches made of bronze, not metal. The final series of these bronze clutches were included in the Cruise-O-Matic transmissions.
2. Dexron III/IV (General Motors), Mercon V (Ford), ATF+4 (Chrysler)
It should be noted that when we say “types” of gearbox oil, we meant the general formulation, not a brand. This goes for Dexron, Mercon, and ATF+4, which are all general mixtures of transmission fluid that were licensed by the big three carmakers in the USA.
These being GM, Ford, and Chrysler, along with many individual marques under their conglomerates. The use of Dexron III (or the much newer mix, IV, V, and VI), Mercon V, and ATF+4 has been licensed as a base ingredient to dozens of other companies who specialize in making transmission fluid.
On top of that, these fluids aren’t exclusive to just these three empires. Several other import vehicles, as well as cars that share GM, Ford, or Chrysler transmissions are also made compatible. If you stop by an auto parts store, these three are the most common types of gearbox oil that you’ll see.
3. HFM (High Friction Modified) Fluid
Another fairly common type of gearbox oil is HFM, or ‘highly friction modified‘. As the name implies, it’s been formulated specifically for those vehicles whose transmissions emit plenty of friction. As a result, they need specialized friction modifiers to keep them in check.
HFM transmission fluids are generally quite universal and are compatible with a huge variety of cars sold today. Nonetheless, we can’t stress enough the importance of checking your owner’s or service manual, just to make sure it fits your particular vehicle.
It’s quite a bit different compared to the aforementioned Dexron, Mercon, and ATF+4 mixes. Some of the carmakers that use HFM-style gearbox oil include Honda (and Acura), Hyundai (and Kia), Toyota (and Lexus), and so forth. Jeep also uses HFM fluids, despite being under Chrysler’s arm.
4. CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) Fluid
CVTs, or continuously variable transmissions, are quickly becoming a very popular choice and are seen as an evolution of automatic gearboxes. Unlike regular transmissions, CVTs don’t have any gears, as it instead relies on variable belts and pulleys to manage the power.
As such, it can technically have an infinite number of “gears”, as it continuously varies the gearing as it sees fit. It results in a smoother ride, as well as improved fuel economy. Since its design differs so much from a conventional geared transmission, it needs its unique blend of fluids.
What Are The Differences Between Synthetic And Conventional Fluids?
Another important thing to look out for when shopping for a bottle of transmission fluid is how it’s been made. Just like motor oil, gearbox oil of today has two forms – conventional, or synthetic. For a conventional transmission fluid, its general chemistry is based around an oil or petroleum base. This is basically an organic formulation dug up from the ground.
Synthetic transmission fluids are, as the name suggests, a synthetic variant of conventional oils. The former is made in a lab, rather than drilled. Synthetic oils are formulated to have the ideal properties that most would want in their transmission fluid. This purity is otherwise hard to achieve with more conventional blends. As such, most carmakers recommend the use of synthetic fluids these days.
That’s despite a bottle costing more than its conventional counterpart. Additionally, synthetic fluids can carry additives, which can include additional protection against wear or corrosion. Some of the benefits of synthetic transmission fluid include:
- Improved resistance to oxidation, as it can lubricate more effectively and provide rust inhibitors.
- Shifting can be felt as smoother since it could maintain its viscosity more evenly across a broad range of temperatures.
- Fewer fluid changes, as synthetic gearbox oil generally lasts a lot longer and require fewer changes.
- Highly resistive against chemical degradation, more than 3x more than conventional fluids, so it won’t turn into a thick sludge too quickly.
- Less chemical breakdown means fewer residues of gearbox oil by-products in the transmission, which allows the gearbox to last longer.
What Should Your Car’s Transmission Fluid Color Be?
If you’re curious to take a look at your transmission fluid color, you should of course learn how to get to the fluid itself. So, how can you check the transmission fluid color in your car? For those of you with a manual transmission, this may prove challenging. They’re less likely to have some easily accessible dipstick. In this case, you’ll need to jack up your car and find the fluid fill plug by the gearbox.
For an automatic, it’s quite a lot simpler:
- First, pop open the hood and then find the transmission fluid reservoir. Don’t mistake this for the motor oil reservoir, though.
- Usually, the transmission fluid reservoir has a red cap to distinct itself a bit better. In addition, it can often be found by the sidewall, not by the engine.
- Now, you can gently pull out the dipstick, and wipe it against a clean, white paper towel or tissue paper. This way, you can more clearly distinguish the color of the transmission fluid.
Once all that is complete, check the color of the fluid. ATF should always be red, nothing else. But how about the shading… What does a darker shade of red compared to a lighter one? When you’ve had your transmission fluid color sample ready, take a look at that paper towel, and compare your findings with our guide down below.
This should alert you to whether the fluids are still new, or if you’re prompted to get it changed out right away. Based on the transmission fluid color, you can then decide the right course of action, if it’s at all needed.
1. Red And Transparent – Practically Brand New Fluid
What Does This Mean? – If your transmission fluid is a bright red and is transparent, then you should be in the clear. This is how transmission fluid is supposed to look when it’s fresh and new, sort of like a red Jello-O type of hue. If you follow through with your regular service intervals, this is how gearbox oil should always be like.
What To Do Now? – Just keep calm, and carry on. If your gearbox fluid is radiantly red and has a very transparent consistency, it doesn’t need changing. However, do pay attention to its location. If you found a bright red puddle underneath your car, then you have a gearbox leak. No matter how fresh the fluid is, never ignore a leak.
2. Dark Red/Light Brown And Semi-Transparent/Translucent – It’s Still In Good Order
What Does This Mean? – If the transmission fluid is maroon, darker red, or light brown, you don’t need to worry about it. This brick-like color, with a semi-transparent consistency, means that it’s already gone through some use, but is still in relatively good condition. From now on, keep a close eye on the color, and make sure it doesn’t get any darker than this.
What To Do Now? – Should you like to plan ahead, maybe consider getting a transmission fluid flush and change scheduled in the future. This color and consistency are serviceable. However, it’s a good idea to have it changed at some point. Check your owner’s manual to see when a transmission fluid change is suggested. Usually, it’s every 30,000 to 60,000 miles, though some can go for longer.
3. Dark Brown And Opaque – Get The Fluid Changed Soon
What Does This Mean? – When the color and consistency of the transmission fluid goes from wine to milk chocolate, then you have a problem. When there’s no translucency left, and it appears as though the fluid was dripped from a sewage truck, it denotes that the fluid is long past its due date. At this point, you’ll have to get the fluid flushed and changed, as soon as is possible.
This cloudy and darkish appearance is likely caused by contamination. At this stage, it can no longer provide ample lubrication or wear protection for the gearbox. Consequently, it’ll undergo immense wear and tear, before its eventual failure. Moreover, this darker color also means that the fluid is burnt. It can happen if the transmission’s running hotter than usual, or is overheating.
What To Do Now? – As your transmission fluid is in poor condition, you have to get it changed right away. Failure to do so can accelerate transmission failure. At the very least, you’ll start to notice a few problems while shifting. Flushing and changing the fluid might not be enough, however. You’ll also need to get a new transmission fluid filter while you’re at it (to find out more, check out our guide on how do you add transmission fluid), as the old one’s contaminated.
4. Very Dark Brown/Black And Opaque – A Fluid Change And Transmission Inspection Is Urgent
What Does This Mean? – Once the fluid turns into a very dark brown or black liquid, you can begin to smell a burnt toast-like scent. This is a sign that the transmission fluid here is very old, worn out, is dirty, contaminated, and it needs an urgent flush and replacement. You may even find some debris in there, which is telling that there’s some oxidation in the system.
Alternatively, it could be metal shavings from your transmission’s moving parts, which is now having to work with sub-optimal lubrication. Subsequently, you may notice signs of transmission problems. It can include gear slippage or hesitation during up- and down-shifts. When transmission fluid color is this dark, simple maintenance won’t suffice. Expensive repairs may be in order.
What To Do Now? – You’ll have to act fast, and get your car towed to a workshop. Once it’s there, a technician needs to go deep, and assess the condition of the gearbox. When the fluid’s this badly old and burnt, some internal damage is possible. A fluid flush and change, as well as a new fluid filter, is a must. On top of that, you may need to get transmission repairs done.
5. Light/Milky Pink And Foamy/Bubbly Texture – Transmission Failure Is Imminent
What Does This Mean? – So far, you might assume that lighter shades are better as far as transmission fluid color goes. That said, seeing the transmission fluid appear more like a strawberry milkshake (you can learn more in our guide on milky transmission fluid) is the worst news possible in this regard. It should look like a light or milky pink, with some semblance of foam or bubbles in its texture.
If your transmission fluid color looks like this, then it denotes that there’s a presence of some water or coolant in your gearbox. Having a bit of moisture is normal, but water or coolant could destroy your transmission. The friction clutches can fall apart as a result, as seals and gaskets are ruined. It often happens as water leaks into damaged or leaky transmission cooling lines.
What To Do Now? – At this point, no amount of servicing could fix your gearbox. The only choice you have is to send it to a gearbox specialist. From there, they’ll remove and take apart your gearbox bit by bit. From here, you’re given two (very) expensive options. Do you want to rebuild – in other words, recondition – your transmission? Or, and if it’s too serious, you’ll have to replace the entire unit.
What Are The Symptoms That You Need Some New Transmission Fluid?
As we mentioned earlier, transmission fluid should be changed every 30,000 to 60,000 miles. Putting this simple maintenance task on your to-do list is more than sufficient in preventing any transmission damage or failure. On average, you could expect a bill of around $150 to $250 for one fluid change. This is cheap compared to the thousands that you’ll spend on fixing up or replacing a gearbox.
But aside from keeping track of your mileage and being prudent about the transmission fluid color, is there another way to tell that you need a fluid change? Well, you could determine when a service is necessary just by assessing how the transmission’s behaving. These symptoms down below are tell-tale signs that a fluid change is due:
- Leaks Under Your Car – Seeing puddles under your car doesn’t always mean it’s a transmission fluid leak. For it to be gearbox oil, any leaks should appear on the transmission case, which is located in the front middle of your car. Also, see if it’s red and if there’s a slightly sweet petroleum sort of smell.
- Whining Or Buzzing Sounds When Shifting – This often indicates that you have a low gearbox fluid level, likely caused by leakage.
- Difficulty In Shifting – You can sense gear slippage, or the transmission’s reluctance or hesitation to change up or down. Elsewhere, you may also notice a rough idle, and delayed acceleration.
- Burning Smell – If you smell a scent akin to burnt toast or a heaty odor, it could be the transmission overheating due to a lack of fluids (as is shown by the “AT oil temp” light in a Subaru).
- Transmission Warning Light – Some cars have a transmission warning light to alert you if it needs attention. If your car doesn’t have one, then the check engine light may appear.
Transmission Fluid Facts: What You Need to Know
- A transmission is a crucial component for a vehicle to operate and requires transmission fluid to prevent excessive wear and provide fluid power for operation.
- Transmission fluid functions as a lubricant, coolant, and hydraulic fluid, and its composition varies depending on whether a transmission has an automatic or manual transmission.
- Transmission fluid is typically dyed red to simplify the identification of impurities and changes in color can indicate the overall state and status of the fluid.
- New transmission fluid is bright red and slick to the touch, while dark red fluid is an indication that it has started to age and may require proactive action such as a transmission fluid change.
- Brown transmission fluid indicates oxidation and a transmission fluid flush is advised to maintain viscosity and prevent wear.
- Very dark brown or black transmission fluid indicates severe contamination and requires immediate full system flush to prevent slipping or internal transmission damage.
- Pink or foamy transmission fluid indicates the presence of moisture, often due to a damaged or compromised transmission fluid cooler that requires replacement and flushing of contaminated systems.
- Healthy transmission fluid has little odor, while burnt or contaminated fluid can emit a strong burnt smell, indicating a need for service.
- Motorists can assess their vehicle’s transmission fluid condition by studying its color and consistency, but should also consult factory-specific service literature for their vehicle to determine service intervals.
- Proper maintenance of transmission fluid can significantly extend the life of almost any transmission, ensuring a smooth commute from one location to another.
Transmission Fluid Color – Conclusion
In all, transmission fluid color may seem trivial, but its hue could tell you so much about how your car’s gearbox is doing. Straight from the bottle, gearbox oil should be a deep red and transparent all the way through. It’ll get darker once it ages. From a wine-like dark red, it’ll turn brown and finally, black. At this latter stage, changing the fluid (and fluid filter) will no longer be enough.
By now, you may need a transmission rebuild or a replacement altogether. Meanwhile, if it’s milky and foamy pink isn’t a good color either. The side effects are perhaps even more serious than having burnt-out liquid. It’s amazing to see just how many transmission-related issues are caused by running on old gearbox oil. A simple fluid change could prevent endless headaches down the line.
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